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06/07/2021

What is the Birch method?

What is the Birch method?

The “Birch method” is a chemical reduction reaction to convert pseudoephedrine in base form into methamphetamine. Although the method was developed by Authur John Birch in 1944, the method has become more popularly known as the Nazi method.

What is in ammonium nitrate?

Ammonium nitrate, (NH4NO3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, used widely in fertilizers and explosives. The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers.

Is ammonium nitrate highly explosive?

Ammonium nitrate can explode through two mechanisms: Shock-to-detonation transition. An explosive charge within or in contact with a mass of ammonium nitrate causes the ammonium nitrate to detonate. Examples of such disasters are Kriewald, Morgan (present-day Sayreville, New Jersey), Oppau, and Tessenderlo.

Is ammonium nitrate alone explosive?

Ammonium nitrate would only explode on its own if its temperature was rapidly raised to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Compared to most combustible materials, ammonium nitrate itself is not exceptionally explosive. But the compound can contribute to explosions because it belongs to a chemical class known as oxidizers.

Why is ammonium nitrate so powerful?

Any sudden ignition causes ammonium nitrate to decompose directly into water, nitrogen and oxygen, which explains the enormous explosive power of the salt. As ammonium nitrate is a highly explosive chemical, many countries strictly regulate its use.

Why ammonium nitrate is dangerous?

Ammonium Nitrate is a STRONG OXIDIZER and when contaminated with OIL, CHARCOAL or other ORGANIC MATERIALS, can EXPLODE and become SENSITIVE TO SHOCK.

How dangerous is ammonia nitrate?

Under normal handling conditions, ammonium nitrate is not harmful. However, inhalation of high concentrations of ammonium nitrate dust can cause respiratory tract irritation. Symptoms may include: coughing, sore throat, shortness of breath, or even suffocation.

How do you handle ammonium nitrate safely?

Promptly and safely dispose of contaminated products. Small amounts may be spread thinly on open ground or washed away as permissible, but not into water courses or drains. Do not allow pallets, ropes, covers, or other equipment to become impregnated with ammonium nitrate. Keep walls, floors and equipment clean.

What are the dangers of ammonia?

Exposure to high concentrations of ammonia in air causes immediate burning of the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract and can result in blindness, lung damage or death. Inhalation of lower concentrations can cause coughing, and nose and throat irritation.

Why is ammonia highly toxic?

Ammonia is very toxic to the brain and new research shows why: the glial cells ability to remove potassium is perturbed. The picture shows individual glial cells deep in the brain of live mice, as well as a microelectrode used to measure electrical activity in nerve cells subjected to two-photon laser microscopy.

Is ammonia highly toxic?

Ammonia is highly toxic. Normally blood ammonium concentration is < 50 µmol /L, and an increase to only 100 µmol /L can lead to disturbance of consciousness. A blood ammonium concentration of 200 µmol /L is associated with coma and convulsions.

What are the signs of ammonia poisoning?

Symptoms of inhalational ammonia toxicity include rhinorrhea, scratchy throat, chest tightness, cough, and dyspnea; eye irritation from the ammonia gas may also be present. Symptoms usually subside within 24-48 hours.

Can smelling ammonia hurt you?

At higher concentrations ammonia can be harmful. The most common health effect is irritation to the eyes, nose or throat. Inhalation of ammonia can also cause nose and throat irritation. People can smell the pungent odor of ammonia in air at about 5 parts of ammonia in a million parts of air (ppm).

What foods increase ammonia levels?

Ammonia levels increased with increased dietary protein intake and with decreased liver function. For simulations of a liver without disease, increasing protein consumption from the recommended protein intake to the high protein diet increased ammonia levels by roughly 59%.

What medication is given to reduce ammonia levels?

Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body. This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What can make ammonia levels high?

High ammonia levels sometimes point to either liver or kidney disease. But several other things can cause higher ammonia levels, like: Bleeding in your stomach, intestines, esophagus, or other parts of your body. Alcohol and drug use, including narcotics and medicines that take extra fluid out of your body (diuretics)

How long does it take for ammonia levels to go down?

This process normally takes anywhere from 2-6 weeks. At temperatures below 70F, it takes even longer to cycle a tank.

What organ produces ammonia?

The main ammonia producing organs are the intestines and the kidneys, whereas the major ammonia consuming organs are the liver and the muscle.

What are normal ammonia levels?

Normal Results The normal range is 15 to 45 µ/dL (11 to 32 µmol/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples.

Can constipation cause high ammonia levels?

Infection: Infection may predispose to impaired renal function and to increased tissue catabolism, both of which increase blood ammonia levels. Constipation: Constipation increases intestinal production and absorption of ammonia.

How is ammonia treated?

There is no antidote for ammonia poisoning. Treatment consists of supportive measures. These include administration of humidified oxygen and bronchodilators and airway management; treatment of skin and eyes with copious irrigation; and dilution of ingested ammonia with milk or water.

How do you neutralize ammonia on skin?

If ammonia gets on your skin or in your eyes, flush the areas with clear water for at least 15 minutes to rinse away all ammonia. If water is not available, cool coffee, milk, cola, juice or other nontoxic liquid may provide temporarily help.

Can you cure ammonia poisoning?

Ammonia poisoning is currently impossible to cure however it can be prevented easily by first cycling the tank (see below). Treatments include immediately reducing the ammonia level through many small water changes.

How does ammonia detoxifier work?

API AMMO LOCK product detoxifies ammonia, converting it into a non-toxic form. This non-toxic ammonia is then removed by the biological filter, or aquarium cycle, in the usual way. API AMMO LOCK ammonia detoxifer is also a dechlorinator, and will remove chlorine and chloramines from tap water.