What personal documents and endorsements are you required to have before you solo?
Basic Solo Privileges Any solo flight, whether local or cross-country, requires two basic endorsements identified in FAR 61.87: A make and model endorsement on the student pilot certificate, which never expires; and. A make and model endorsement in the logbook that’s valid for 90 days.
How long does a solo endorsement last?
What is the minimum reserve fuel required for day VFR operations?
One hour of fuel reserve on IFR flights (airplane and helicopter) One hour of fuel reserve on airplane VFR flights regardless of day/night conditions. 30 minutes of fuel reserve on helicopter VFR flights.
What is minimum fuel in aviation?
Minimum Fuel. “Indicates that an aircraft’s fuel supply has reached a state where, upon reaching the destination, it can accept little or no delay. This is not an emergency situation but merely indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur.”
What are the minimum fuel requirements in IFR conditions?
This rule says “no person may operate a civil aircraft in IFR conditions unless it carries enough fuel” to complete the flight and land with enough fuel for 45 minutes of normal cruise.
How much extra fuel do airplanes carry?
Commercial flights typically carry at least one hour’s worth of additional fuel on top of that required to get to their destination, but this is often increased by the pilots depending on the circumstances on the day. Airlines must comply with the regulatory stipulations with regards to carrying fuel.
How is fuel calculated for IFR flight?
The amount of fuel needed for a given flight can be calculated by multiplying the estimated flight time by the rate of consumption. For example, a flight of 400 NM at 100 knots GS takes 4 hours to complete.
How much fuel does a VFR flight use?
General Aviation 3.6 “Fuel and oil supply” requires: For IFR, enough fuel to reach destination, then alternate (if required), plus 45 minutes. For day VFR, enough fuel to reach destination plus 30 minutes. For night VFR, enough fuel to reach destination plus 45 minutes.
How is minimum diversion fuel calculated?
Minimum Diversion or Reserve Fuel is the sum of the Alternate Fuel and the Final Reserve Fuel.
How much is fuel contingency?
According to ICAO Annex 6, the recommended minimum contingency fuel is the greater of 5% of the trip fuel or 5 minutes holding consumption at 1500′ above destination airfield elevation computed based on calculated arrival weight.
What is the minimum equipment and instruments for VFR flight?
For VFR flight during the day, the following in- struments and equipment are required: (1) Airspeed indicator. (2) Altimeter. (3) Magnetic direction indicator.
What equipment is required for IFR flight?
In the United States, instruments required for IFR flight in addition to those that are required for VFR flight are: heading indicator, sensitive altimeter adjustable for barometric pressure, clock with a sweep-second pointer or digital equivalent, attitude indicator, radios and suitable avionics for the route to be …
What is the difference between Mel and Mmel?
An MEL must also be approved by the aviation authority, but unlike an MMEL, which is designed to cover an entire aircraft series/models’ potential configurations, spanning years or even decades, an MEL can be fully customized to remove non-applicable items as well as add procedures.